Distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood groups in Saudi Population of Makkah City–Saudia ArabiaDownload PDF
Background: The antigens expressed on the red blood cell determine an individual’s blood group. The two main blood groups are called ABO (with blood types A, B, AB, and O) and Rh (with Rh D-positive or Rh D-negative blood types). The discovery of the ABO blood group system over 100 years ago, caused a great excitement .Until then, all blood had been assumed to be the same, and the often tragic consequences of blood transfusions were not understood.. The Rh blood group system is the most second important system which has a clinical significant in medical life, and probably the most complex of all red blood group systems. It was discovered by Landsteiner and Winer in 1940.
Objectives: This study was designed to detect the frequency of ABO, and Rh(D) blood groups in Saudi population of Makkah city-KSA in the period between 1/1/2014 till 31/12/2016.
Materials and Methods: Blood testing for ABO, and Rh (D) typing was done over two years, in 4930 unrelated individuals, from both genders. Blood grouping was conducted based on hemagglutination and hemolysis reactions.
Results: Blood group “O” was the most predominant (48.29%) in both Rh positive and negative subjects, followed by blood group A, B and AB with frequencies of 29.91%, 17.54%, and 4.23% respectively. Majority of the subjects were Rh (D) positive (98.0%), when only 2% were Rh negative.
Conclusions: The frequency of ABO blood groups in both Rh positive and negative subjects among the Saudi ethnic group in Makah city was similar to that reported from neighboring regions.
Keywords: ABO, Rh (D), blood groups, Saudi population.