Evaluation of Energy Utilization in Traditional Baking Ovens (A case study of Small Scale Bakeries in Kano City-Nigeria)Download PDF
A study on the use of fuel wood for baking ovens of traditional bread in Kano Nigeria is carried out. Seven household bakery ovens are selected randomly in the baking quarters of the town and coded B1 to B7. Thermometer, spring balance, measuring scale pan and tape were used to measure the temperatures, masses of fuel wood, bread and dough, and the oven wall thickness respectively. Minimum and maximum energy utilization of 11.66% and 13.08% with corresponding minimum and maximum heat losses of 88.34% and 86.92% were obtained. Two channels of energy losses were identified. The first depends on the oven characteristics and the other on the baking practice that allows time lapse between oven chamber evacuation and the commencement of the baking process. Estimated oven wall thickness of 0.06m (2cm in excess of the present average of approximately 0.04m (4cm) obtained from the ovens considered for the study) was found to reduce the rate and quantities of heat lost by 33.3%. The corresponding quantities of heat energy conserved and its Naira equivalent ranged from 6.3 x 107kJ to 8.6 x 107kJ and N69.51.00 to N90.75 respectively. Thus large proportion of energy obtained from fuelwood is wasted in traditional ovens. Recommendations of possible improvement of efficient utilization of fuelwood in the traditional bakery ovens were made.
Keywords: Traditional ovens, fuelwood, energy utilization, bakery