Food allergy to wheat, soybean and cassava in Benin: Literature ReviewDownload PDF
The objective of this study is to make a synthesis of the data relating to the food allergy to wheat, cassava and soy. Allergy is defined as a hypersensitivity reaction initiated by an immunologic mechanism. The mediator of this mechanism may be lymphocytes or immunoglobulin namely immunoglobulin (Ig) G and E. Dependent IgE allergies are the most common. Since the years 2008, many emerging allergens appear. These include allergens of wheat (gliadin, Glutenin), soybeans (Gly m 5, m 6 Gly and Gly m 4) and cassava (Man e5). The manifestations of these allergies are various, namely: lesions of eczema, pruritus, vomiting, diarrhea, rhinitis, cough, conjunctiva, etc. The prevalence of allergy to soy, wheat and cassava also increases very quickly. Biological diagnostic techniques improve from the test of Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) to the detection of cellular activation IgE dependent. In 2014 a new immunotherapy technique is established for cell triggering allergies. The usual preventive means are antihistamines, corticosteroids and the adrenaline auto-injectors pens. Today there is also a therapeutic education (TPE) of the patient and his family who teaches actions and specific knowledge in order to avoid accidents sometimes fatal and thus improve the quality of life of people with allergies. It is therefore essential to popularize the concept of food allergy in developing countries such as Benin for a better health of populations.
Keywords: Food allergy, wheat, soybeans, cassava, biological diagnosis.