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Article Published In Vol.6 (March-April-2018)

Prevalence and Pattern of Hypertension in Ikom, an Urban Community in Cross River State, South-Southern Nigeria

Pages : 312-317, DOI:

Author : Omotoso AJ, Ekpe EL, Ekpe LS, Oshatuyi O, Nsisong Inyang

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Background: Hypertension, a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa, and to a great extent, Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country. Hypertension constitutes a major public health challenge; it is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Objectives: This study aimed to estimate and determine the prevalence, pattern and some risk factors for hypertension among the populace living in Ikom an Urban community of Cross River State, South-Southern Nigeria hence ensuring its effective awareness and control.
This was done based on the normal cut off of 140/90mmHg.
Method: A descriptive cross sectional community-based survey was used, involving 113 male and female adult respondents aged 18-79 years selected by random sampling method. Behavioral data was measured using World Health Organization (WHO) Stepwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance (STEPS 1&2). Hypertension was defined as Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) ≥ 140mmHg and/or Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) ≥ 90mmHg or being on a regular/current anti-hypertensive drug therapy. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics
Results: A total of 113 adults of Ikom local government area, cross river state participated in the study [26 (23%) men and 87 (77%) women]X2 (47, 133) = 43.943, p=0.60. The age range was 18 to 76 years. The mean age 50.35 ± 13.76 and the mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was recorded as 25.59 ± 4.96. The mean blood pressure of all the participants are 138.50 ± 29.05 for SBP and 77.78 ± 15.06 for DBP respectively. A moderate correlation was observed between age and blood pressure indices r=0.489 and 0.390, p<0.001 for SBP and DBP respectively. The prevalence of hypertension among the study population was 37.17%. The prevalence of obesity was 16.8%.
Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension among the dwellers of Ikom, Cross River State Nigeria was relatively high. Also, the prevalence of obesity a risk factor for developing hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases was high. Urgent intervention by the government and other health organizations will go a long way in curbing this trend.

Keywords: Hypertension, Prevalence, Urban, Ikom



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