Salinity effect on wheat Triticum aestivum L. callus growth and developmentDownload PDF
This research was conducted to study the effect of salinity on callus induction and development of two local wheat cultivars Tamoz2 and Iraq. Four different methods were used to sterilize the mature seeds. Sterilizing the seeds before and after soaking them in water with absolute Ethanol for 1 min. followed by 6% NaOCl for 10 min. showed 0% contamination and didn’t affect embryos viability. However, there was no significant difference in the percentage of contamination between this method and the method in which 70% Ethanol for 1 min. followed by 4.2% NaOCl for 10 min. before and after soaking them in water. Calli were induced from mature embryos and subjected to sodium chloride of (6, 8, 12, or 14 dSm-1). The results showed that there was significant difference between the cultivars in the calli fresh and dry weights. Tamoz2 showed higher callus induction ability than Iraq. The highest weight was recorded for the control of both cultivars which was reduced significantly as the salinity level increased. However, there was no significant difference between the salinity levels 12 and 14 ds.m-1 in the effect on calli fresh weight. Also Tamoz2 showed significantly higher dry weight than Iraq cultivar. Moreover, significant effect on the dry weight was recorded for the salt levels. The highest dry weight was for 8 ds.m-1 treatment followed by the control. Interaction analysis showed that the highest dry weight was for Tamoz2 grown on 8 dS.m-1 whereas the lowest was for Iraq grown on 12 ds.m1 salinity level. In conclusion Tamoz2 was more salt tolerant than Iraq at the callus level under the condition of this experiment.
Keywords: Mature embryo, sodium chloride, salt tolerant