Study of the process and microbiological quality of Gappal, a fermented food from Burkina Faso based on milk and millet doughDownload PDF
Gappal is a traditional fermented food of Burkina Faso’s Fulani ethnic group, made with millet dough and milk and traditionally eaten in family. The aim of the present study was to characterize the process of Gappal production, to evaluate the good hygiene practices during production and to assess the microbiological quality of commercialized Gappal. For that, 21 Gappal producers from seven towns of Burkina Faso were surveyed. 106 samples of Gappal commercialized were collected and analysed for pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, total aerobic count, lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria, yeasts and moulds, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus counts. The main operation units of the process were found to be: winnowing, washing, dehulling, pounding and/or milling, milk addition, fermentation, drying and packaging. The microbial values varied from producer to another and 86.8% of samples were found to have acceptable quality whereas 13.2% of samples were not conforms to microbiological quality criteria. No sample was satisfactory quality. The fermentation of millet dough mixed to milk gives to Gappal interesting nutritional properties and the drying increase the availability and the preservation duration. However, the presence of germs able to produce toxins in Gappal increases the risk to consumer health.
Keywords: Gappal, Process, Fermentation, Quality, Microbiology, Burkina Faso